The are three types of political street demonstrations in the contemporary Western context, each a function of a different type relationship between the state and its citizens:
- Type 1 Protest: A ritualistic humiliation of the state’s internal enemies.
- Type 2 Protest: A show of solidarity between the people and the state against an external enemy.
- Type 3 Protest: A people’s challenge to the legitimacy of the state.
Type 1 Protest — “Hey Hey, Ho Ho…”
This is the type of protest in which the participants are jubilant and cocky, visibly having a good time. Participating in this kind of a demonstration is risk-free with regards to legal consequences, especially considering how destructive those protests can wind up being. I happened upon one of those demonstrations last year while walking down 14th Street just east of the White House. The procession looked something like this:
It was about fifty #BlackLivesMatter demonstrators marching, with several police cars…
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